Dental implantation

Replacing lost teeth with a bone-anchored device is not a new concept at all. Archeological findings showed that the ancient Egyptian and South American civilizations already experimented withre-implanting lost teeth with hand-shaped ivory or wood substitutes.

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In the 18th century lost teeth were sometimes replaced with extracted teeth of other human donors. The implantation process was probably somewhat crude and the success rates extremely low due to the strong immune reaction of the receiving individual.

In 1809, Maggiolo fabricated a gold implant which was placed into fresh extraction sockets to which he attached a tooth after a certain healing period. In 1887, a physician named Harris attempted the same procedure with a platinum post, instead of a gold post. In 1886 Edmunds was the first in the US to implant a platinum disc into the jawbone, to which a porcelain crown was fixated. He demonstrated this at the First District Dental Society of New York. After these initial steps, many other implantation attempts were made along the same lines, experimenting with different metal alloys and porcelain formulations, however; on the whole, the long-term success rates were still very poor.

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Strock placed the first somewhat successful oral implants in 1937 at Harvard University. Strock published a paper on the physiological effects of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (vitallium) in bone, and thus placed a series of vitallium implants into test animals and humans. These implants were immediately implanted after an extraction of a tooth and no untoward post-operative complications or reactions were recorded. Histologic sections from the test animals showed a remarkable tissue tolerance to the vitallium implants. He followed some of his patients successfully for over fifteen years, until he passed away. Certain types of implants used today are often still cast from vitallium.

Modern Historical Developments:

The time span from the mid-1930s to the present represents the period in which certain implant concepts were developed, which formed the foundation for today's variety of different implant modalities. These modalities include the Subperiosteal, the Endosteal Blade, the Ramus Frame and the Endosteal Root-form or Cylindrical Implant. These different implant types or modalities are discussed in more detail in the Types of Implants section.

The Subperiosteal Implant has been a successful treatment for the past 30 years according to several publications. The first Subperiosteal Implant was placed in 1948 by Gustav Dahl and was constantly improved in its design since then.

The Endosteal Blade Implant, introduced independently in 1967 by Leonard Linkow and Ralph and Harold Roberts, also proved to be a very viable form of patient care with respect to implant reconstruction.

The quantum leap in Oral Implantology was achieved in 1952 in the Laboratory of Vital Microscopy at the University of Lund, Sweden, by a Swedish research team headed by Per Ingvar Branemark, an Orthopedic Surgeon. One of their research projects was to study the microscopic healing events in bone. Their test subjects were rabbits. Dr. Branemark's team designed an optical chamber housed in a titanium metal cylinder, which was screwed into the rabbit's thighbone. Once the experiment was completed after several months, they realized that the titanium cylinder had fused to the bone. He named this phenomenon Osseointegration. Based on this observation, Dr. Branemark's research shifted more towards the use of titanium appliances in human bone, including the use of titanium screws as bone anchors for lost teeth. Many experiments and trials by himself and colleagues from other disciplines and institutions would head in that direction providing adjunctive expertise in physics, chemistry, biomechanics, medicine and physiology. The Osseointegration concept evolved closely coupled with the design of a cylindrical titanium screw with a specific surface treatment to enhance its bioacceptance.

On the left you can see what the original Titanium Screw looked like.

Many animal and, subsequently, human clinical trials were performed to test the success rate, the concept and the design of this implant. Dr. Branemark battled the doubts of the scientific community for many years with continuing clinical trials. In fact, it was not until 1981 when enough long-term data was available to his team to publish a landmark paper for the scrutiny of an intrigued scientific community.

In 1982, the Toronto Conference on Osseointegration in Clinical Dentistry laid down the first parameters on what is to be considered successful implant treatment within the stringent confines of the scientific community. This Conference also catalyzed the acceptance and use of dental implants in North America.

Since then many other foreign as well as domestic implant systems have surfaced. Most of them are very similar in design to the original Branemark Titanium Screw. However, many improvements have been made since then by many different companies, and research continues to influence future designs and concepts.

Nowadays, the implantation is magnificent alternative for tooth restoration.

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Stages of implantation.

Dental implantation includes 3 stages.

The first stage is surgical operation, which includes installation of implant into jowl. The surgical operation is made in dental office under the local anesthesia and narcosis. During this operation there is formed bone bed in jaw and implant is installed in. The implants are installed neatly. This interference is less traumatic then wisdom tooth removal. After operation is healing period, which is continue around 3-6 month. In this period the implant is grafted in the bone, and after this titanium implant is installed.

After one-two weeks happened next stage Ц dental prosthesis making.
The third stage is called orthopeadic. After titanium abutment installation, there are made imprints of teeth. According to them are made denture models, which are prototypes of future artificial crowns, which are chosen according to color of his teeth. Also there exist implants which are installed in one stage (one-step implantation).

The implants are made of industrially clean titan. ThatТs why implant adopting is 97%, and itТs the best result.

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The advantage of tooth implantation.

The tooth implants restore shape and functions of lost tooth.

  1. The tooth implants gives ability hiding defects of different size without turning cut of tooth. For example, if there is lack of tooth, the two neighboring teeth have to be stitched around, and for implantation itТs not needed. In this case the one implant restores the one lost tooth.
  2. The tooth implant can be used for restoration of lost tooth, that neighboring teeth arenТt changed.
  3. The implants can be used like support for dental bridge for restoration of dental denture defects.
  4. The implants give ability for making fixed denture on the edentulous jaw.
  5. The implants can be used as support for removal denture, using this there can be reached better fixation then with usual removal denture.

When there are losses of teeth, the bone fast become atrophy thanks to losing of function load. The implant installing stops atrophy process (reduction of height and width) in the bone of lost tooth area.

There is needed to restore defect of dental denture without preparation of neighboring teeth.

This is useful for patients who canТt use removal denture according to some reasons.

Dental implantation Ц is alternative to removal denture.

Nowadays implantation allows restoring full edentulous jaw by removal or conditionally removal constructions.


The stages of implant installation.

  1. The lack of one tooth on the upper jaw.
    The first stage Ц examination. It includes x-ray photos, appraising the situations.
  2. Implant installation.
    There is formed bed in the bone, and implant is installed.
  3. Crown shaping for implant.
  4. There is made prints from the prints, according to prints are made crowns.
  5. Crown fixing for implant.

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The installation of two implants, the dental bridge making.

  1. There is lack of tree teeth in succession on the lower jaw.
    The first stage Ц examination. It includes x-ray photos, appraising the situations.
  2. Installation of two implants.
    In the area of lack teeth there are shaped bed in the bone for implants installation.
  3. Dental bridge making on implants. There are made prints, and according to them is made dental bridge.
  4. Dental bridge fixation on implants.

Making of removal denture for edentulous jaw with help of implants.

  1. Full edentulous jaw.
    The first stage Ц examination. It includes x-ray photos, appraising the situations.
  2. Installation of five implants.
    On the area of frontal teeth are shaped bed in the bone for implant installation.
  3. Dental bridge making on implants.
    There are made prints, and according to them is made dental bridge.
  4. Dental bridge fixation on implants.
    In such way looks removal construction for restoration of full edentulous jaw.
    Conditionally removal denture making on the two implants.

Lower jaw. For making conditionally removal denture for implants, thare are installed two implants on the lower jaw. For normal function there is enough implants with length 7mm, as the bone is more dense then upper jaw.

Dental bridge on the implants

It looks like usual dental bridge.

But in this case abutment teeth are implants.

The implants serve as crowns and abutments for dental bridge.

Dental clinic UKRMEDINVEST for treatment uses the TRINON implants

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